About 2/3 of Venus is made of rolling hills. 10% covered by highlands. About 1000 craters.
* less than the moon but more than earth.
* if Venus was struck at the same rate, surface is only 500 million years old
* thick atmosphere shelters it from small impacts but larger objects result in craters
- larger objects fall apart, create clusters of craters
* some lava flows may be relatively young, about 10 million years.
- changes in the amount of atmospheric sulfur dioxide suggest major volcanic activity in the 1970s
* volcanic activity suggests a molten interior
* no plate tectonics so heat is not released gradually.
* 96% carbon dioxide, 3.5% nitrogen
* clouds are made of sulfuric acid
- clouds from 50-70km, haze to 30k
* surface pressure is 90x earth’s
* surface temp is 464C / 867F
Venus’ high temp made the water evaporate into the atmosphere.
* large amounts of water vapor and carbon dioxide created a greenhouse effect
Ultraviolet light from the sun broke down water high in the atmosphere.
* evidence is the ratio of hydrogen to deuterium (Venus is 100:1, earth 1000:1)
Venue was left with large amounts of carbon dioxide in its atmosphere
* greenhouse effect increased until the amount of radiation leaving equalled the amount received, which gave Venus its current high temperature
MARS OMG DONT DRINK THE WATER
* looks red because of oxides on the surface.
* best seen at opposition (distance between earth/mars is smaest)
- seasonal changes can be seen
* major differences between north/south hemispheres
- dust storms can blur surface features
Diameter is 1/2 of earth’s
Mass is 1/10 of earth’s
Density is about 3.93x that of water
* mars has no global magnetic field, despite the fact that it rotates very fast
* surface rocks are iron rich, density and etc suggest Mars lacks an iron core